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Home > Important Published Papers > TECHNIQUES OF DYEING COIR MATERIALS
TECHNIQUES OF DYEING COIR MATERIALS
by K.G.Mohanan, P.C.Antonel Vaz, J.Sunilduth, A.Radhakrishnan, V.A.Sebastian and U.S.Sarma, Proceedings of the International workshop on Wet processing of Coir 8-9, December 1997
Abstract
Dyeing of coir fibre/yarn is essential for improving the marketability of coir products and satisfying the requirements of consumers. A literature and industrial survey had been conducted to ascertain the dyestuffs/chemicals and processes used for colouring coir materials and comparative cost involved for dyeing of coir. The fastness characteristics of different classes of dyestuffs used for dyeing of coir materials were analysed and chemicals marketed by different firms were examined for their suitability in the dyeing of coir. The synthetic, natural and ecofriendly dyestuffs were identified and dyeing experiments were carried out for assessing their suitability to coir.

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Introduction
A dyestuff is most commonly an organic compound which can be used to impart colour to a substance. The literature survey reveals that a wide range of dyes capable of yielding bright shades of good to excellent fastness are available for the dyeing of textiles. However, quite a large number of such dyes are not useful for dyeing coir, for some of them require special pretreatments of the material before the dye is applied or they are costly from the point of view of the coir industry.

Dyes are applied to coir materials by two distinct processes, dyeing and printing of which the former is extensively used. In dyeing, the fibre absorbs the dye from the aqueous solution or dispersion and is more or less uniformly coloured. The uniformity of dyeing (level dyeing) depends upon the absorptive power of coir fibre, the nature of the dye and condition of dyeing. The dyed shade usually must be matched against a sample and the fastness of the dyeing (ie. the resistance of the shade to the action of light, water rubbing etc.) must conform to the specified requirement of the consumer.

In the attempts to identify dyes/chemicals suitable for achieving better fastness properties, penetration and brilliant shade with less cost revealed that the most commonly used dyestuffs for coir materials belong to the classes of Basic, Acid and Direct dyes. These dyes are applied to the materials from their solution in water with the aid of chemicals like acetic acid, sulphuric acid formic acid, common salt etc. to facilitate the transfer of dyes from the dye bath to the fibre substrate under appropriate conditions of temperature for specified periods depending on the dyestuff that is being used.

The basic dyes have high tinctorial value and affinity to coir but are fugitive to light and rubbing. The acid dyes have better fastness to light but of less brightness that basic dyes. Direct dyes find use in producing shades having fastness properties better than acid dyes but they produce dull shades and require longer processing time. The use of imported dyes is limited in coir Industry.
INDUSTRIAL SURVEY
The survey confirmed that the major quantity of dyeing of coir fibre/yarn is done in the small scale sector using conventional process. With a view to improve the quality of dyed material, modern dyeing methods are also adopted by the industry. The industry adopts the following methods for dyeing
1. Conventional method of dyeing coir
2. Improved method of dyeing coir
3. Mechanised method of dyeing coir
CONVENTIONAL METHOD OF DYEING COIR
In the conventional method, the dyeing is carried out in copper or alminium/Indalium or G.I dye vat of 1.2 M dia and 0.75 height placed on hearth made out of country bricks, fired from below using country wood. The dye vat is sufficient to process 60 kg.of coir yarn or 30 kg.of coir fibre with a material to liquor ratio of 1:12 for coir yarn and 1:20 for coir fibre. After filling with required quantity of water, it is heated from below till the required temperature is reached. The required quantity of dyestuffs (according to the percentage of shade) and chemicals are added to the dye bath after making into a paste. The dye bath is stirred well and the material is entered and turned manually at frequent intervals for level dyeing. At the end of dyeing the material is taken out washed in cold water and dried under shade.
IMPROVED METHOD OF DYEING COIR
The improved method of dyeing process is carried out by highly skilled 'Moopans'in the industry using dye vats made or stainless steel and fitted with drinage valve for proper draining or dye effluents. The vats are fixed on hearths made of fire bricks with flue pipes for efficient air draught for maximum utilisation of the heat energy. The dyes are taken as per recipes formulated by CCRI which is available on the shade cards. The quality of dyeing is improved compared to the small scale sector.
MECHANISED SYSTEM OF DYEING
To get the best desired result, coir yarn is dyed in the mechanised system of dyeing, comprising of dye vats with forced circulation of the dye liquor in two directions on uniformly arranged coir yarn for uniform level dyeing. The temperature is controlled as per the requirement by regulating the flow of heating system. After the dyeing operation, hydro-extractors are used to drive out the major part of the machanically held up water and finally these materials are dried on the endless conveyor drier, for efficient drying. This system of dyeing helps to improve the penetration, shade consistency, uniform dyeing on coir fibre/yarn by the action of temperature, efficient & forced circulation of dye liquor and period of dyeing. This method help to dye large quantities of material at a time avoiding shade variations compared to the other two processes. The comparative cost for dyeing using standard receipes for five common solid colours in conventional improved and mechanised system of dyeings are furnished below as Table –I
Table - I : Cost aspects of dyeing in different method
Sl Shade %shade -do- -do- -do- -do- 60 2 1
NO 3 Coomasse red-PG
C.Iacid red 85
-do- -do- -do- -do- -do- 60 3 3
 
TABLE –IV CHARACTERISTICS OF DYED COIR MATERIALS USING DIRECT DYES
1 Direct fast scarlet SEC.I Direct Red- 23 1.00Acid/ Formic Sulphuric1-1.5 hrs. 90-95oc moderate moderate 70 3 3
2 Direct fast yellow 3 C.I 1.00 -do- -do- -do- -do- 60 2 3
3 Direct catachine 77 New C.i.Direct brown 33 1.00 -do- -do- -do- -do- 60 2 3
 
TABLE –V CHARACTERISTICS OF DYED COIR MATERIALS USING REACTIVE DYES
1 Procion brill red M.5B 2.00 C.Salt Soda ash Cold 2 hours Poor Averate 40 4 5
2 Procion yellow M3R 2.00 -do- -do- -do- -do- 40 4 5
3 Procion turquoise MGN 2.00 -do- -do- -do- -do- 40 3.4 5
 
The fastness properties of dyed coir materials witch as water fastness, light fastness and rubbing fastness, are to be determined in respect of each dyestuff belonging to the different classes. A number of dyestuffs belonging to basic, acid and direct classes were used to for colouring coir materials such as retted coir fibre, green husks fibre, green husk treated with coirret, yarn from retted and brown coir fibre. The details of the shades developed with receipe are furnished as Annexure-1I

The yarn produced from brown fibre was dyed in different shades using dyestuffs such as Auramine, Rhodamine B 500, Magenta, Malachite green, Bismark brown, Chrysodine, Methyle violet at different concentrations of 0.2%, 0.25% and 0.3%. It was observed that the shades with 0.25% of the basic dyes showed a satisfactory coverage on the fibre.

In order to compare the brightness of shade, pick up light and water fastness, green husk fibre treated with coirret and retted coir fibre were dyed using Acid orange II, Rhodamine B 500, Direct green B and Malachite green for developing different shades.

4 shades evolved from acid and 2 shades from direct classes of dyestuffs which is safe to the environment was taken on coir yarn spun from retted fibre using receipe. Detailed in Table VI
TABLE –V I : ECOFRIENDLY SHADES EVOLVED FOR COIR MATERIALS
No Class Name of shade Name of the Dyestuff % of shade
1 Acid class TOKYO Acid orange II 0.50
      Sulphuric acid 1.00
      Azo fast LRW 1.00
2 Acid class FLAX FLOWER Acid brill blue 0.113
      Acid violet 0.066
      Sulphuric acid 1.00
      Azofast LRW 1.00
3 Acid class LOVE BIRD Acid milling yelow G 0.70
      Patent blue AS 0.02
      Azo fast IRW 1.00
4 Acid class CHROME LEMON Acid milling yellow G 0.75
      Patent blue AS 0.0016
      Sulphuric acid 1.00
      Azofast LRW 1.00
5 Direct Class CLOUB BROWN Direct brown MR 0.20
      Direct black E 0.20
      Direct fast violet BI 0.05
      Azofast IRW 1.00
      Common salt 1.00
 
CONCLUSION
1. The mechanised system of dyeing is most effective as it helps to achieve shade consistency, between penetration of dyes and byulk treatment of odye effluent

2. The list of banned carcinogenic dyes and chemicals were identified and circulated among the trade.

3. It is desirable to assess fastness properties of each dyestuff belonging to different classes and their suitability to coir

4. For improved appearance and dye up-take, it would be preferable to wet out the material in cold water.

5. Strict adherance to the methods of dyeing including the optimum use of chemicals, temp and duration of treatment is necessary to obtain dyeing of satisfactory standards.

6. Only those 'safe' dyes that have high rating of light fastness should be taken for use.

7. Light bleaching of the material prior to dyeing yield pastel shades of good brightness.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors place it on record their sincere thanks to FAO/CFC for providing fund to conduct the studies and also grateful to the Coir Board for providing facilities for carrying out the investigations and for their kind permission to publish this paper,
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ANNEXURE-1
DYESTUFFS TO BE USED FOR COLOURING COIR MATERIALS
1. Rhodamine B 500

2. Malachite Green XLS

3. Bismark Brown

4. Magenta powder

5. Chrysodine

6. Basic black SDI

7. Methyle Blue extra

8. Acid Brill Blue BR

9. Acid Turquoise Blue G

10. Acid Red G

11. Acod Pramge 11

12. Acid Red B

13. Acid Coir Scartet AR

14. Acid yellow 5N

15. Acid Red RS

16. Acid Green B

17. Acid Brill Red 3 BN

18. Acid Scarlet 3R

19. Acid Maroon V

20. Acid black G

21. Acid Brown R

22. Acid Violot N

23. Acid Rhodamine BL

24. Acid Coffee brown

25. Direct Gray

26. Direct Yellow 5 GLC

27. Direct gray BL

28. Direct Green G

29. Direct kaki 2B

30. Direct fast olive RN.Conc

31. Direct green B

32. Direct Catachine 77 New

33. Chrysophenine CH

34. Direct brown MR

35. Direct black E Extra Conc.

36. Direct fast Orange S.E

37. Direct fast Red 5B

38. Direct Sky Blue D 6B

39. Direct yellow SG

40. Direct fast violet BL

41.Nilgrosine XLS

42. Diamond green XLS

43. Texasol Brown TDJ Spl.NB

44. Toxasol Navy Blue AM

45. Procion brill Red M-5B

46. Procion Yellow M-3R

47. Procion Turquoisize M-GN

48. Procion Brill Magenta MB

49. Procion Yellow MGR

50. Procion Brill Blue M GX

51. Procion Brill Orange MZR

52. Procion Brill Red M-8B

53. Procion Blue M- 4GD

54. Procion Navy Blue M-3R
ANNEXURE- I I
DYESTUFFS USED WITH CONCENTRATIONS FOR DEVELOPING DIFFERENT SHADES ON COIR MATERIALS
RETTED COIR FIBRE
Sl..No. Shade Dyestuffs used Percentage
1 Deep Blue Acid Brill Blue BR 1.00
Acid violet 1.50
Sulphuric acid 2.00
2 Brown Direct Catachine 77 New 2.00
Common Salt 10.0
3 Chocolate Direct Brown MR 1.50
Direct black E 0.50
Common Salt 10.0
4 Yellow Chrysophine CH 2.50
Common Salt 10.0
5 Green Malachite Green XLS 0.40
Auramine OA 0.10
Acetid Acid 2.00
6 Deep Brown Direct Catachine 77New 2.00
Direct brown MR 0.50
Common Salt 10.0
7 Acid Brill Blue BR 0.20
8 Nigrosine XLS 0.10
Acid Milling Red G 1.50
Acid Milling yellow 1.50
Nigrosine XLS 0.01
9 Acid Milling Yellow 0.05
Patent Blue ASD Conc. 0.05
Nigrosine XLS 0.03
10 Acid Brill Blue BR 0.50
Nigrosine XLS 0.10
11 Acid Turquoise Blue 0.10
Acid Brill Blue 0.10
12 Nigrosine XLS 0.20
Acid Brill Blue BR 0.02
13 Acid Turquise Blue G 0.60
Acid Brill Blue BR 0.40
14 Acid Brill Blue BR 0.40
Patent Blue ASD Cone 0.15
Nigrosine XLS 0.15
15 Acid Milling yellow 0.40
Acid Turquoise Blue G 0.25
Nigrosine XLS 0.05
16 Acid Brill blue BR 0.70
Nigrosine XLS 0.20
17 Direct yellow SGL 0.30
18 Direct fast Orange SE 0.18
Direct fast violet 4BL 0.015
19 Chrysophenine CH 0.15
Direct fast Orange SE 0.02
20 Direct fast red 5B 0.05
Direct fast Orange SE 0.025
Direct fast Violet 4BL 0.01
Aso fast LRW 1.00
21 Direct fast orange SE 0.50
Direct fast Red 5B 0.50
22 Direct green B 1.00
Direct Sky Blue D 6B 0.30
Chysophinine CH 0.15
23 Direct Green B 1.00
Direct Sky Blue D 6B 0.50
24 Direct Green B 0.05
Chrysophenine CH 0.03
25 Direct Fast Red 5 B 1.00
26 Direct fast blue FFS 0.15
Direct Sky Blue D 6B 0.15
27 Direct Catachine 77 New 0.25
Direct Brown MR 0.01
28 Chrysophenine CH 0.30
Direct fast orange SE 0.10
COIR YARN (Natural)
Sl..No. Shade Dyestuffs used Percentage
1 Lido Mechylene Blue 2B 0.10
Methyl Violet 2 B 0.10
2 Ultramarine Methylene Blue 2B 0.10
Methyl Violet 0.15
3 Indian Yellow Auramine OA 0.15
Chrysodine 7 0.25
4 English Vermition Acid Milling red G 0.10
5 Citrine Auramine OA 0.20
6 Bronze green Direct fast olive RN con. 0.90
Direct black E 0.05
7 Light Chrome Direct Yellow 5 GL 1.10
8 Indian Orange Acid Orange II 0.10
9 Strawberry Rhodamine B 500 0.15
Chrysodine 7(on bleached yarn
0.30
YARN FROM BROWN COIR
Sl..No. Shade Dyestuffs used Percentage
1   Acid Brill Blue BR 0.20
2   Nigrosine XLS 0.20
3   Patent Blue AS 0.50
4   Acid Orange II 1.70
    Acid Yellow 0.04
5   Patent Blue 0.05
    Nigrosine XLS 0.07
6   Acid Orange II 1.00
7   Nigrosine XLS 0.50
8   Patent Blue AS 0.10
9   Acid Orange II 0.50
Details of the materials used
A: Dye stuffs
1. Rhodamine B 500
2. Malachite green XLS
3. Chrysodine G
4. Acid yellow G
5. Acid Green B
6. Coomasse Red PG
7. Direct Catachine 77 new
8. Direct fast Scarlet SE
9. Direct fast yellow 3G
10. Procion Brill Red M-5B
11. Procion yellow M-3R
12. Procion Turquoise M-GN
13. Acid Brill oBlue BR
14. Acid Violet
15. Direct Brown MR
16. Direct Black E
17. Chrysophenine CH
18. Aurammine OA
19. Nigrosine XLS
20. Acid Milling Red G
21. Acid Milling Yellow
22. Patent Blue ASD Con.
23. Acid Turquoise BlueG
24. Direct yellow 5 GL
25. Direct fast Orange SE
26. Direct fast ciolet 4 BL
27. Direct fast red 5 B
28. Direct green B
29. Direct sky Blue D 6B
30. Direct fast Ble FFS
31. Methylene Blue 2B
32. Methyl Violet 2 B
33. Direct fast Olive RN cone.
34. Acid Orange II
B: Chemicals
1. Acetic Acid
2. Sulphuric Acid
3. Formic Acid
4. Common Salt
5. Soda ash
6. Sodium bicarbonate 7. Caustic soda
8. Urea
9. Azofast LRW
ANNEXURE-I A: ACID DYES
C.I.NAME C.I.No COMMERCIAL NAME EXAMPLES
AMINE RELEASING
Acid Black 29 30336 Black B/BS Nylacid fast Black B
Acid Black 94   Black B/BV Chromoloather fast Black BV
Acid Black 209 ---- Black FC Corlacid Black B
Acid Black 131 ---- Black GBL/BGL Irgalan Black GBL
    Gray BGL Lanasya Black BGL
Acid Black 132 ---- Black BRI/RBL Irgalan Black RBI
    Lanasyn Black BRL
Acid Orange 45 22195 Orange R Acid Orange R
      Milling Orange R
      Fast Orange R
Acid Red 4 14710 Eosine G.Gc Anll Acid Fast Pink B
    Pink B, Scarlet B/BL Anil Acid Scarlet B
    Red E Erlo Scartet B
      Atul Acid Pink B
Acid iRed 5 14905 Rhodine Gr Erio Red R
    Red R/RR Azo Rhodine GR
Acid Red 73 27290 Croceine MOO/38/3BA Atul Crocoline Scarlet Moo
    Scariet DOO/3BC/R Ensin Red GR
    Red GR  
Acid Red 118 26660 Cloth Red G2B  
Acid Red 150 27190 Cloth Red 2R, No.6  
    Scarlet  
Acid Red 264 18133 Brill Red 3 BL  
Acid Red 420   Scarlet Y-LEW  
Acid Red 24 16140 Ponceau G RT  
    Poncequ Scarlet  
Acid Red 85 22245 Red G Atul Acid Milling Red G
Acid ioRed 114 23635 Red 2R/RS/BB Coomassie Red 2R
      Nylomine Red C-2R
      Sadolan Red –RSI
      Nylosan Red F-RS
      Milling Red BB
Acid Red 115 27200 Red 2B Erlosin Red 2B
Acid Red 128 24125 Red 3B Milling Borodeaux R
    Bordeaux R Atul Acid Milling Red 3B
Acid 148 26665 Red BC Emiacid clothe Red BC
Acid Red 158 20530 Red 3 BL/ER Supranol Red 3 BL
      Teleon Fast Red ER
Acid Red 167 --- Red B Polnr Red B
      Milling Fast Red B
Acid Red 265
Rhodine/Calmine4B
18129 Red BL Sandolan Brilliant Red E-BL
      Milling Red BL
Acid Violet 12 18075 Red 2B/BB/BBA/A2B Acid Red A2B
Acid Brown 415 --- Brown S-GL  
POISONOUS
C.I.NAME C.I.No COMMERCIAL NAME EXAMPLES
Acid Orange 156 26501 Orange 3 G Sandlolain Orange PGL
    Orange GL/GNS Hylosan Orange CGNS
Acid Orange 165 28602 Orange 8RE Aciddol Orange 3 RE
CARCINOGENIC
C.I.NAME C.I.No COMMERCIAL NAME EXAMPLES
Acid Dye 16155 Ponceau 3R/ 3RN  
    Orange GL/GNS Hylosan Orange CGNS
Acid Red 16 16150 Ponceau 2R/RR/RL/FR Acid Ponceau 2RL
Acid Violet 49 42640 Violet 38/48/68 Erloslno Violet 38
      Acitan Violet S4 BN
      Acid Violet
ALLERGENIC
C.I.NAME C.I.No COMMERCIAL NAME EXAMPLES
Acid Violet 17 42650 Violet 4B/4BS/R Acid Brill Milling
      Violet 4BS
      Coomassic Violet R
      Sanolan Brill Violet E
      4BNG
ANNEXURE-I B : BASIC DYES
CARCINOGENIC
C.I.NAME C.I.No COMMERCIAL NAME EXAMPLES
Basic Red 9   Fusine rosandine  
    Magenta N  
Basic Yellow 41000 Auramine O  
POISONOUS
C.I.NAME C.I.No COMMERCIAL NAME EXAMPLES
Basic blue 3 51004 Blue BG/3G Astrazone Blue BG
    Blue Green 5G Basacryl Blue Green X-5G
      Sandocryl Blue B 3G
Basic Blue 7 42595 Blue BO Victoria Pure Blue BO
      Lake Blue BO
Basic Blue 81 42595 Blue FGA Victoria pure blue FGA
Basic Red 12 48070 Phloxine G Astra Pholoxine G Extrn.Brillint.
    Pink AS Red BG Pink AS
Baosic Violet 16 48013 Violet 3R Astra Violet 3 R Extra Basacry
    Red BG/68 Brill Red BG Sandocryl Red
      B 6B
Basic Yellow 21 48069 Yellow 6G/ 7G Astrazon Yellow 7GL1
Astrazon Yellow 7GL1     Sandocryl Brill yellow B 6 GL
AMINE RELEASING
C.I.NAME C.I.No COMMERCIAL NAME EXAMPLES
Basic Brown 4 (Solvent Brown12) 21010 Bismark brown R Atul Bismarck Brown R
    Vesuvine B Astra Vesuivme 8
Basic Red 42   Red BJ  
Basic Red 111   Red EB K 2n BN  
ANNEXURE- I C: DIRECT DYES
Name of Company Brand Name
Atul Atul Direct
Ariabs Tezazol
Bayer Sirus, Supta
Ciba Chloraline, Cupraling
Dinesh Dinamine
Golden dyes Godamine Fast
I.C.I Chlorazol, Durozol
Indokem Incomine
Sandoz Solar, Pyrazol
Texdyes Texazol, Texirius
The Ci names and commercial names are given below. No specific of brand names are given as all dyes areio known by their commercial name
C.I.Name C.I.No. Chemical Name
AMINE RELEASING
Direct Black 29 22580 Black Bo
Direct Black 38 30235 Black E/2E/EC/EG/ER/RT
Direct Black 4 30245 Black W/RW/R/RX/D
Direct Black 154   Deep black XA/AXN
Direct Black 91 30400 Copper Black R/RL/RLW
Direct Blue 1 24410 Sky blue FB/FFGB
    Blue GB/FF
Direct Blue 10 24340 Blue G/GS/DG
Direct Blue 14 24850 Blue 3B/3BX/NB/2BG
Direct Blue 15 24400 Sky blue/Pure blue FB
    Sky Blue A/FF
Direct Blue 151 24175 Copper Blue B/BB/A
Direct Blue 160   Copper Navy blue R/RLL/RLW
Direct Blue 173   Copper blue 3G
Direct Blue 192   Dialuminous blue GF
Direct Blue 2 22590 Black BT/BH/ABC
    Navy blue BH
Direct Blue 201   Blue BRL
Direct Blue 215 24115 Copper blue GR
Direct Blue 22 24280 Blue RW/Blue 5G
Direct Blue 25 24790 Blue/Brill blue/New  blue 5B
     
Direct Blue 295 23820 Blue 2BNB
Direct Blue 3 23705 Asurine 3B
    Veiolet 20
Direct Blue 35 24145 Brill blue 3B/3BN
Direct Blue 6 22610 Blue 2B/BB/2B
Direct Red 22 Basic Red 42 Red BJ
Basic Red 111   Red EB K 2n BN
ANNEXURE- I C: DIRECT DYES
Name of Company Brand Name
Atul Atul Direct
Ariabs Tezazol
Bayer Sirus, Supta
Ciba Chloraline, Cupraling
Dinesh Dinamine
Golden dyes Godamine Fast
I.C.I Chlorazol, Durozol
Incomine  
Sandoz Solar, Pyrazol
Texdyes Texazol, Texirius
The Ci names and commercial names are given below. No specific of brand names are given as all dyes areio known by their commercial name
C.I.Name C.I.No. Chemical Name
AMINE RELEASING
Direct Black 29 22580 Black Bo
Direct Black 38 30235 Black E/2E/EC/EG/ER/RT
Direct Black 4 30245 Black W/RW/R/RX/D
Direct Black 154   Deep black XA/AXN
Direct Black 91    
TECHNIQUES OF DYEING COIR MATERIALS
by K.G.Mohanan, P.C.Antonel Vaz, J.Sunilduth, A.Radhakrishnan, V.A.Sebastian and U.S.Sarma, Proceedings of the International workshop on Wet processing of Coir 8-9, December 1997
ABSTRACT
Dyeing of coir fibre/yarn is essential for improving the marketability of coir products and satisfying the requirements of consumers. A literature and industrial survey had been conducted to ascertain the dyestuffs/chemicals and processes used for colouring coir materials and comparative cost involved for dyeing of coir. The fastness characteristics of different classes of dyestuffs used for dyeing of coir materials were analysed and chemicals marketed by different firms were examined for their suitability in the dyeing of coir. The synthetic, natural and ecofriendly dyestuffs were identified and dyeing experiments were carried out for assessing their suitability to coir.
INTRODUCTION
A dyestuff is most commonly an organic compound which can be used to impart colour to a substance. The literature survey reveals that a wide range of dyes capable of yielding bright shades of good to excellent fastness are available for the dyeing of textiles. However, quite a large number of such dyes are not useful for dyeing coir, for some of them require special pretreatments of the material before the dye is applied or they are costly from the point of view of the coir industry.

Dyes are applied to coir materials by two distinct processes, dyeing and printing of which the former is extensively used. In dyeing, the fibre absorbs the dye from the aqueous solution or dispersion and is more or less uniformly coloured. The uniformity of dyeing (level dyeing) depends upon the absorptive power of coir fibre, the nature of the dye and condition of dyeing. The dyed shade usually must be matched aginst a sample and the fastness of the dyeing (ie. the resistance of the shade to the action of light, water rubbing etc.) must conform to the specified requirement of the consumer.

In the attempts to identify dyes/chemicals suitable for achieving better fastness properties, penetration and brilliant shade with less cost revealed that the most commonly used dyestuffs for coir materials belong to the classes of Basic, Acid and Direct dyes. These dyes are applied to the materials from their solution in water with the aid of chemicals like acetic acid, sulphuric acid formic acid, common salt etc. to facilitate the transfer of dyes from the dye bath to the fibre substrate under appropriate conditions of temperature for specified periods depending on the dyestuff that is being used.

The basic dyes have high tinctorial value and affinity to coir but are fugitive to light and rubbing. The acid dyes have better fastness to light but of less brightness that basic dyes. Direct dyes find use in producing shades having fastness properties better than acid dyes but they produce dull shades and require longer processing time. The use of imported dyes is limited in coir Industry.
 
INDUSTRIAL SURVEY
The survey confirmed that the major quantity of dyeing of coir fibre/yarn is done in the small scale sector using conventional process. With a view to improve the quality of dyed material, modern dyeing methods are also adopted by the industry. The industry adopts the following methods for dyeing.
1. Conventional method of dyeing coir

2. Improved method of dyeing coir

3. Mechanised method of dyeing coir
CONVENTIONAL METHOD OF DYEING COIR
In the conventional method, the dyeing is carried out in copper or alminium/Indalium or G.I dye vat of 1.2 M dia and 0.75 height placed on hearth made out of country bricks, fired from below using country wood. The dye vat is sufficient to process 60 kg.of coir yarn or 30 kg.of coir fibre with a material to liquor ratio of 1:12 for coir yarn and 1:20 for coir fibre. After filling with required quantity of water, it is heated from below till the required temperature is reached. The required quantity of dyestuffs (according to the percentage of shade) and chemicals are added to the dye bath after making into a paste. The dye bath is stirred well and the material is entered and turned manually at frequent intervals for level dyeing. At the end of dyeing the material is taken out washed in cold water and dried under shade.
IMPROVED METHOD OF DYEING COIR
The improved method of dyeing process is carried out by highly skilled 'Moopans'in the industry using dye vats made or stainless steel and fitted with drinage valve for proper draining or dye effluents. The vats are fixed on hearths made of fire bricks with flue pipes for efficient air draught for maximum utilisation of the heat energy. The dyes are taken as per recipes formulated by CCRI which is available on the shade cards. The quality of dyeing is improved compared to the small scale sector.
MECHANISED SYSTEM OF DYEING
To get the best desired result, coir yarn is dyed in the mechanised system of dyeing, comprising of dye vats with forced circulation of the dye liquor in two directions on uniformly arranged coir yarn for uniform level dyeing. The temperature is controlled as per the requirement by regulating the flow of heating system. After the dyeing operation, hydro-extractors are used to drive out the major part of the mechanically held up water and finally these materials are dried on the endless conveyor drier, for efficient drying. This system of dyeing helps to improve the penetration, shade consistency, uniform dyeing on coir fibre/yarn by the action of temperature, efficient & forced circulation of dye liquor and period of dyeing. This method help to dye large quantities of material at a time avoiding shade variations compared to the other two processes.

The comparative cost for dyeing using standard receipes for five common solid colours in conventional improved and mechanised system of dyeings are furnished below as Table –I
Table - I : Cost aspects of dyeing in different method
Table - I : Cost aspects of dyeing in different method
Sl
No
Shade %shade Direct Blue 2 22590 Black BT/BH/ABC
Navy blue BH
Direct Blue 201   Blue BRL
Direct Blue 215 24115 Copper blue GR
Direct Blue 22 24280 Blue RW/Blue 5G
Direct Blue 25
Direct Blue 295
24790 23820 Blue 2BNB
Direct Blue 3 23705 Asurine 3B
Direct Blue 35 24145 Brill blue 3B/3BN
Direct Blue 6 22610 Blue 2B/BB/2B
Direct Red 22 23565 Red 5B Purpurne 5B
Purple B
Direct Red 24 29185 Scarlet 4BA/BAS/4BSL
Direct Red 26 29190 Scarlet 8B/SBS/8BA
Direct Red 28 22120 Congo Red
Congo Red 4B/RS
Direct Red 37 22240 Red B Scarlet B/BL
Direct Red 39 23630 Scarlet 3B
Direct Red 40 22500 Rubine B borde Aux extra
Direct Red 46 23050 Red 8B,Purpurlno 8B
Direct Red 62 29175 Orange R/RS/FBR
Direct Red 67 23505 Purpurlono 4B >Cotton Red N
Direct Red 7 24100 Red 10B,Purpurlno 10B
Direct Red 72 29200 Scarlet 4BN/4SW
Direct Violet 1 22570 Violet N/MN/NN/R/3R
Direct Violet 12 22550 Violet R/O/OC/On
Direct Violet 21 23520 Corinth B
Direct Violet 22 22450 Violet LN
Direct Yellow 1 22250 Yellow G
Chrysamine G
Direct Yellow 24 22010 Golden yellow N
Yellow CT
Direct  Yellow 48 23660 Yellow TG
OTHERS
Developer 14
Oxidation
Basic 20
76035 Developer B/H/MTD/Motatolum
Ingrain Blue 2/2 74160 Phthalogen
Brill Blue IF3G

Brill Blue 3G
 
ANNEXURE –1 D: LIST OF BANNED AMINES
Sl.No Banned Amine Sl.No Banned Amine
1 Amionodiphenyl 11 3.3 Dimethoxyvenzidine
2 Boridino 12 3.3 Dimethylbenzidine
3 Chloro -O- Toluidine 13 3.3 Dimelthylebenzidine
4 Naphthylamine 14 P.Kresidin
5 Aminoazotoluene 15 4.4 Methylene-Bis-(2)- Chloraniline)
6 Amino-4- nitortoluene 16 4.4 Oxydianiline
7 Chlorailine 17 4.4 thiodianiline
8 4 Diaminoanisol 18 O.Tonuidine
9 4 Diaminodiphenylmethan 19 2.4 Toluyledindiamine
10 3 Dichlorobenzidine 20 2.4.5 Trjmethylanialine
 
ANNEXURE –I F: YIELDS OF NATURAL DYES
DYE SOURCE CONTENT
Madder Rootbark 1.9%
Cochineal Female Cochineal louse 1.8%
Indigo Indigo Plant leaves 1.5-2.0 %
Saffron "Crocus"Plant flower pistil 7.0%
Annato Roucone tree-seed 15.0%
Carotin Carrot, ret palm oil, pumking seed 0.5%
Juglone Black Walnut hulls 0.2%
Lac Stick-lac 0.5-0.75%
 

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